XI - trânsito e transporte. XII - jazidas, minas, outros recursos minerais artigo metalurgia. Economia domestica como fazer - populações indígenas. XX - sistemas de consórcios e sorteios. XXIII - seguridade social. XXVI - atividades nucleares de qualquer natureza. XXIX - propaganda comercial. VII - preservar as florestas, a fauna e a flora.
III - juntas comerciais. IV - custas dos serviços forenses. VIII - responsabilidade por dano ao meio ambiente, ao consumidor, a bens e direitos de valor artístico, estético, histórico, turístico e paisagístico. XI - procedimentos em matéria processual. Incluem-se entre os bens dos Estados: XIV — perda do mandato do Prefeito, nos termos do art. I - efetuar repasse que supere os limites definidos neste artigo.
I - legislar sobre assuntos de interesse local. III - instituir e arrecadar os tributos de sua competência, bem como aplicar suas rendas, sem prejuízo da obrigatoriedade de prestar contas e publicar balancetes nos prazos fixados em lei. I - manter a integridade nacional.
VII - assegurar a observância dos seguintes princípios constitucionais: I - deixar de ser paga, sem motivo de força maior, por dois anos consecutivos, a dívida fundada. I - no caso do art. I - a natureza, o grau de responsabilidade e a complexidade dos cargos componentes de cada carreira. II - os requisitos bonde stronda nossa quimica a investidura.
III - as peculiaridades dos cargos. Aplica-se o limite fixado artigo art. These readings varied in number. A common practice artigo to read first from the Old Testament Prophetiathen from an Epistle Apostolus and lastly from a Gospel Evangelium. Artigo any case the Gospel was read last, as the fulfilment of all the rest. Augustine "In Johannem", tract. It seems that in some places in the West especially for a time catechumens were not allowed to stay for the Gospel, which was considered part of the disciplina arcani.
At the Synod of Orange, artigo 29 cf, inand at Valenciainthey wanted to change this rule. On the other hand, in all Artigo Liturgies e. The public reading of certain Gospels in churches was the most artigo factor in deciding which were to be considered canonical.
The four that were received and read in the Liturgy everywhere were for that very reason admitted to the Canon of Scripture. We have evidences of this liturgical reading of the Gospel from every part of Christendom in the first centuries.
For Syriathe Artigo Constitutions tell us that when a bishop was ordained he blessed the people "after the reading of the law and prophets and our Epistles and Acts and Gospels" VIII, 5and the manner of reading the Gospel is described in II, 57 Cabrol and Leclercq, "Monumenta eccl.
The homilies of St. In EgyptSt. In Africa, Tertullian mentions the same thing adv. Cyprian ordained a certain confessor named Aurelian that he might "read the Gospel that forms martyrs " Ep. In every rite then, from the beginning, as now, the reading of the Gospel formed the chief feature, the cardinal point of the liturgy of the catechumens.
It was not only read in the Liturgy. At Rome the Gospel of the Liturgy was read first, with a homilyat Matinsof which use we have now only a fragment. But the monastic Office still contains the whole Gospel read after the Te Deum. Gradually the portions to be read in the Liturgy became fixed. The steps in the development of the texts used are: Then indexes are drawn up to show which passages are appointed for each day.
These indexes generally written at the beginning or end of the Bible are called Synaxaria in Greek, Capitularia in Latin; they give the first and last words of each lesson pericope.
The complete Capitularium giving references for all the Lessons to be read each day is a Comes, Liber comitis, or comicus. Later they are composed with the whole text, so as to dispense with searching for it; they have thus become Evangeliaria.
The next step is to arrange together all the Lessons for each day, Prophecy, Epistle, Gospel, and even readings from non-canonical books. Such a compilation is a Lectionarium. Then, finally, when complete Missals are drawn up about the tenth to the thirteenth centuries the Lessons are included in them. Selection of gospels What portions were read? In the first place there was a difference as to the text used.
Till about the fifth century it seems that in Syriaat any rate, compilations of the four Gospels made into one narrative were used. The famous "Diatessaron" of Tatian is supposed to have been composed for this purpose Martin in Revue des Quest.
Augustine made an unsuccessful attempt to introduce it in Africa by inserting into one Gospel passages taken from the others SermoP. But the commoner use was to read the text of one of the Gospels as it stands see Baudot, "Les Evangéliaires", quoted below, On great feasts the appropriate passage was taken.
Thomas "Non credo nisi videro"and so on. The "Peregrinatio "gives us the Gospels thus read for a number of days throughout the year Baudot, op. For the rest of the year it seems that originally the text was read straight through probably with the omission of such special passages. At each Synaxis they began again where they had left off last time. Thus Gassian says that in his time the monks read the New Testament through Coll. The homilies of certain Fathers St. John ChrysostomSt.
Gospel in the Liturgy 2018
In the Eastern Churches the principle obtained that the Four Gospels should be read right through in the course of each year Scrivener in Smith, "Dict. The Byzantine Church began reading St. Matthew immediately after Pentecost. Luke followed from September when their new year beginsSt.
Mark began before Lentand St. John was read during Eastertide.
There were some exceptions, e. A similar arrangement is still observed by them, porque existem movimentos sociais com interesses tao diversos any copy of their Gospel-book will show EuangelionVenice, The Syrians have the artigo arrangement, the Copts a different order, but based on the same principle of continuous readings Scrivener, "Introduction to the criticism of the N.
For the present arrangement of the Byzantine Church see Nilles"Kalendarium manuale", Innsbruck, 2nd ed. It is well known diario de obra they name their Sundays after the Sunday Gospel, e. This brings us to a much-disputed question: It is clearly not that of continuous readings. Shortly, his conclusions are these: The root of the order is the selection of appropriate Gospels for the chief feasts and seasons of the year; for these, the account that seemed most complete was chosen, without regard to the particular Evangelist.
The intervals were then filled up so as to complete the picture of Our Lord's lifebut without chronological order. First, Easter was considered with Holy Week. The lessons for this time are obvious. Working backwards, in Lent the Gospel of Our Lord's fast in the desert was put at the beginning, the entry to Jerusalem and the anointing by Mary John This led to the resurrection of Lazarus in the East, too, always at this place.
Some chief incidents from the end of Christ's life filled up the rest.
The Epiphany suggested three Gospels about the Wise Men, artigo, the Baptism, and the first miraclewhich events it commemorates cf. Forward from EasterAscension Day and Pentecost demanded certain passages clearly. There remains the most difficult set of Gospels of all — those for the Sundays after Pentecost.
They seem to be meant to complete what has not yet been told about His life. Nevertheless, their order is very hard to understand. It has been suggested that they are meant to correspond to the lessons of Matins. In some cases, at any rate, such a comparison is tempting.
Thus, on the third Sundayin the first Nocturne, we read about Saul seeking his father's asses 1 Samuel 9in the Gospel and therefore in the third Nocturne about the man who loses one sheep, and the lost drachma Luke 15 ; on the fourth SundayDavid fights Dinamica sobre comunicacao "in nomine Domini exercituum" 1 Samuel 17in the Gospel, St.
Peter throws out his net "in verbo tuo" Luke 5 artigo on the fifth, David mourns his enemy Saul 2 Samuel 1in the Gospel we artigo told to o que a medicina estuda reconciled artigo our enemies Matthew 5.
Perhaps the nearness of certain feasts had an influence, too. Artigo some lists Luke 5where our Lord says, "From henceforth thou shalt catch men", to St. Peter, came on the Sunday before his feast 29 Juneand the story posso fazer o teste de farmacia antes do atraso menstrual Artigo. Andrew and the multiplied bread John 6 before 30 November.
Durandus notices this "Rationale", VI,"De dom. Beissel is disposed to think that much of the arrangement is accidental, and that no satisfactory explanation of the order of Gospels after Pentecost has been found. In any case the order throughout the year is very old. A tradition says that St. Jerome arranged it by command of St. Certainly the Lessons now sung in our churches are those that St.
Gregory the Great's deacon chanted at Rome thirteen hundred years ago Beissel, op. Ceremony of singing the gospel The Gospel has been for many centuries in East and West the privilege of the deacon.
This was not always the case. At first a reader anagnosteslector read all the lessons. We have seen a case of this in the story of St. Cyprian and Aurelian see above. Jerome died speaks of the deacon as reader of the Gospel Ep. The Apostolic Constitutions refer the Gospel to the deacon ; and in a council, at Vaisonsays deacons "are worthy to read the words that Christ spoke in the Gospel" Baudot, op.
An exception that lasted through the Middle Ages was that at Christmas the emperor, dressed in a rochet and stole, sang the midnight Gospel: Another mark of respect was that everyone stood to hear the Gospel, bareheaded, in the attitude of a servant receiving his master's orders Apost. The Grand Masters of the Knights of St.
John drew their swords while the Gospel was read. This custom seems still to be observed by some great noblemen in Poland. If any one has a stick in his hand he is to lay it down Baudot,but the bishop holds his crosier see below. The Gospel was sung from the ambo ambona pulpit generally halfway down the church, from which it could be best heard by every one Cabrol, Dict.
Often there were two ambos: From here the deacon faced south, as the "Ordo Rom. Later, when the ambo had disappeared, the deacon turned to the north. Micrologus De missa, ix notices this and explains it as an imitation of the celebrant's position at the altar at low Mass — one of the ways in which that service has reacted on to high Mass.
The Byzantine Church still commands the deacon to sing the Gospel from the ambo e. The deacon first asked the blessing of the bishop or celebrant then went to the ambo with the book, in procession, accompanied by lights and incense. Germanus of Paris died mentions this Ep. See the ceremonies in the "Ordo Rom. I", 11, and "Ordo Rom. II", which are almost exactly ours.
The "Dominus vobiscum" at the beginning, the announcement of the Gospel "Sequentia sancti Evangelii" etc. Benedict's RuleXI. Our present answer, "Laus tibi Christe", seems to be a later one Gihr, "Messopfer", The elaborate care taken to decorate the book of the Gospels throughout the Middle Ages was also a sign of respect for its contents; St. Jerome speaks of this Ep.