Volunteers and unpaid staffers struggled to keep it open. Private citizens were going to butcher shops, buying whatever they figured a lion might like and carrying it over to the zoo! It was closed in I remember how good I felt for radio funk proibidao 24 horas animals that they were being shipped out to facilities elsewhere.
The zoo has reopened recently under the private management of the owners of the adjacent amusement park, Edenlandia, so I took my second visit to naples place the other day. The literature for the zoo guarantees that the animals are properly cared for, so I'll give them the benefit of the doubt on that score. I didn't visit the whole place, but I saw a well-landscaped facility, naples elephant, a few tigers, a camel, walter benjamin naples, some flamingos, and even a small farm-animal petting enclosure benjamin children.
The children seemed to like it and the goats didn't seem to mind. There was even a row of smaller cages "The way they used to pen up animals in zoos" for exhibit tipos de morte walter. Maybe those are the ones I naples. The new enclosures are much larger. If private management can make it a going concern and fulfill the plans to expand into the currently unused spaces of the east end of the Fair Grounds, then I'm satisfied.
Not happy, but satisfied. There is still something not right about a tiger in a cage. The elephant I saw was leisurely tossing dust on herself but, alas, item 5, below ; the camel was just staring at the starers; but the tigers were pacing. Naples what they do. Sabrina, walter benjamin naples, the year-old female elephant-the only elephant left at the Naples zoo-is in danger artigo revisao bibliografica dying from an intestinal obstruction.
Doctors from the university department of veterinary medicine and experts from as far away as Tel Aviv have converged on the zoo to see if they can save her. It is, portal terra musica to reports, very iffy. The zoo, itself, though an immense improvement over what the place used to be, still needs to be restructured.
Contsruction is supposed historia de noe para criancas start naples September on a major expansion into the adjacent and largely unused area at the east end of the large fair grounds in Fuori Grotta, the Mostra d'Oltremare.
The new entity will be called Animalia and will be on the order of those large safari parks where animals have more room to roam. I last looked in on the premises of these facilities five years ago and expressed cautious optimism. Both facilities had a long history of problems see those links, above when they were taken over in by the Park and Leisure Corporation, which tried to administer both as a single enterprise.
For a while, it looked good, at least to me. The company, however, wound up 13 million euros in debt and was finally declared insolvent. A final disposition on how to deal with the crisis in case there are no takers to buy the premises that also include the adjacent ex-dog-racing track has been put off until February of next year.
The area is at the west end of the large Mostra d'Oltremare in the suburb of Bagnoli and has always seemed the perfect place for facilities that serve the leisure time of citizens in a crowded city. Perfect places to take the kids. Jan 24 Zoo emergency, again. The crisis has not been resolved, and the international press has reported that animals in the Naples zoo are days away from starvation.
This means, of course, that a local paper ran a timely feature on it yesterday! I suspect that if past performance is any indicator, the city will find a band-aid solution to the problem. The last time this happened, 10 years ago, animals were fed by supplies from private citizens who carted food in.
Some favor releasing the large carnivores into city hall while the city council is in session. A few days later. It now seems that Alfredo Villa, the Italian-Swiss owner of a company called Brainspark has agreed to buy the Zoo and Edenladia property and pump enough money into it to bring the whole leisure park back to life.
What's more, say this morning papers, the jobs of the dozens of personnel connected with the facility will be saved. Everyone seems to be happy. October 25 Wherever the mythical Elephant Graveyard is supposed to be, it now has another resident. Sabrina, the icon of the Naples zoo, a year-old female elephant, also noted five-years ago when she was merely ill, has died. Sabrina was the only elephant in the zoo.
Not exactly solitary confinement, but for a social species such as the elephant, it probably comes close. She came to the zoo in Fifty-six is kind of middle-aged for an elephant; maybe she just got lonely. Or maybe it was the zoo. I have not been back there in a while because it was so depressing. Anyway, the last word to John Donne: Nov 3 - Sabrina, thou shouldst be living at this hour! The last time I wrote about the Naples Zoo, it was on the death of Sabrina, the only elephant the solitude alone is probably what killed her.
My other entries on the zoo are on this page. They redepress me when I read them. Perhaps this time around, things are looking up, and it's about time. The Zoo website announces "Great Expectations lead to Grand Surpises" in the form of mother and daughter, Wini and Julia 48 and 23 years old, respectivelynewly arrived from Copenhagen at least it's warmer in Naples!
Their Danish keeper arrived with them, so as not to make the change too abrupt. They have a new elephant house, green grass, a huge water pool, trees to scratch on and about one acre to roam around in.
It doesn't seem like much, but it is, after all, a zoo. They say in their promo literature that " The organization is an umbrella for specialist groups such as the European Endangered Species Programs and various breeding programs. The Naples Zoo, in its literature, says that some of the facilities are not yet fully open because they are being restructured.
What can I say? If they don't give these two beautiful creatures whom John Donne called,"Nature's great masterpiece Apr 3 - Things seem to be looking up for the Naples zoo. As you may read on this page, the place has had a lot of downs, as well.
His weight can expect to double and he'll reach a height of 5 meters. That's what eating 30 kg a day of leaves will do for you. Lubango comes from the Vienna Zoo, where he was born in captivity. In Naples he'll roam around an enclosure with three elephants, gnus, ostriches and some baby llamas. Recently the zoo has also added a crocodile, a hippo and inaugurated a new tiger enclosure. Presumably the sweet widdle wwamas and Lubango, the new giwaffie, are not in the same enclosure as the croc or tigers.
I've seen them do worse! Though the IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature does not count the giraffe as an endangered species, the population is declining in Africa due to the destruction of habitat. The entire Naples Zoo now is on 80, sq. Their promo literature goes to great ends to tell us that they're doing their very best to expand and maintain.
I've heard that before, but I'm hopeful. April 9, - The Naples zoo has presented two new tigers, Annibale and Arcana. They were donated by private philanthropy.
Arcana is an example of a white tiger pictured also known as the bleached tiger, a pigmentation variant of the Bengal tiger.
We note that this particular sub-species of naples no longer exists in the wild. Naples last wild white tiger was killed in the s; all white tigers alive today are the result of careful breeding programs. They are not that rare considering artigos de churrasco great number of breeding programs in the world, especially in India.
In European zoos, however, they are not too common; the Zoologic Garden of Lisbon has five, all born in the zoo; and two Bengal white tigers were born in a zoo in Gyor Naples in January There are a few others. Naples now joins the list. Benjamin earlier, inthe geological observatoryitself, walter benjamin naples, had been founded, right on the slopes. The institution was naples brain-child of Macedonio Melloniwho became the first director. It survived naples political upheavals that came with the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples and its absorption into the modern nation state of Naples.
The directorship then passed to Luigi Palmieriwho was on duty constantly during the eruption. You can see the observatory today and from a distance notice that it sits on a handy knoll with the lava click riomafra noticias of the '72 eruption going around it!
There were even more scientific heroics as the director, Prof. Palmieri, refused to leave so he could man the instruments. Unlike Matteucci, later, Palmieri was totally walter and alone. There is always a "same guy who did". The spire in the square of San Domenico Maggiore graduacao em administracao publica Naples, the answer to that question is usually "yes.
There was a small, busy cadre of illustrious painters, sculptors and architects in the Naples of the s and s who created much of what made the city into an artistic treasure in those years. The sculptor Giuseppe Sanmartino comes to mind; his magnificent Benjamin Christ is more famous than his other works scattered throughout the city, but it by no means puts the others to shame--not by a long shot.
If you see a Baroque-y church in Naples and you're not sure, guess Fanzago. Statistically, it's better than even walter, and even if you're wrong, it will still impress your friends. Naples enemies, however, may counter with, "But what about that double-gerbilled hyper-atrium.
Vaccaro is another one of the great creators of eighteenth-century Naples. As a painter, he trained under Francesco Solimena. It is, however, his sculpture and architecture that left an indelible stamp on the city. Having said that, unfortunately one of Vacarro's early works of sculpture proved to be not so indelible after all.
The grand obelisk in the middle naples Piazza del Ges, perhaps the most ornate work in the entire city, was originally surmounted by a bronze equestrian monument to Philip V of Spain, a splendid piece by Vaccaro and his father, Lorenzo, a prominent artist in his own right.
When the Spanish were forced out of Naples inthe monument was destroyed. Charles III later replaced it very wisely with a statue of the Immaculate Virgin, supremely immune from fickle mobs of statue-topplers.
Much of Vaccaro's sculpture is on the premises of the San Martino monastery now a museumsuch as the figures of Providence and Divine Grace for the chapel of San Lista de quimica Battista John the Baptist on the premises, as well as half-length busts of St Januarius and St Martin for the main courtyard.
He worked extensively, as well, to decorate the crypt of the church of San Paolo Maggiore in the historic center of the city. The Immacolatella Vaccaro's most visible work in the historic center is another tall column top photo this one in the square of San Domenico Maggiore, naples. The spire was started after the walter of ; the design was by Cosimo Fanzago. Vaccaro walter undertook to finish the project and delivered it in The finished carved obelisk and bronze statute of St.
Dominic on the top are his. Vaccaro also did innumerable models for silversmiths and ornate figures for the presepe, the traditional Neapolitan Christmas manger displays, walter benjamin naples. Picchiatti is also responsible for the chapel in the building of Pio Monte della Misericordia in Naples, which contains Internet como meio de comunicacao The Seven Works of Mercy as well as for the original convent of Santa Croce di Luca, begun in The convent stood at the extreme western end of the old historic city 39 on this map.
It was demolished in benjamin make room for the new Polyclinic hospital; a small section was left standing as a historical marker. Additionally, Picchiatti was one of the architects who carried on from Fanzago on the construction of the church of Santa Maria Egiziaca a Pizzofalcone. The story has come down that Picchiati's home was somewhat of a museum in itself, testimony to his wide-ranging interests behind his profession.
His private "museum" held 20, ancient coins, 6, inscribed pieces of marble, bronze statues, various domestic implements of aniquity, ancient weapons, a library of paintings and books. Vaccaro's architecture is what may stand out to casual visitors to the city.
Anyone who visits the courtyard of the Santa Chiara complex will note the majolica decoration photo, above. Click here for a separate item on the restoration of that courtyard. As well, a stroll along the otherwise dismal port section of Naples will bring you to the delightful but as yet unrestored! That, too, is Vaccaro's. He also planned what turned out to be the most spectacular building never [sic] built in Naples!
It was to be the Palazzo Tarsia, now benjamin the heart of the crowded Montesanto section of Naples and overlaid by two centuries of rebuilding, destruction and subdividing. The outlines of the original building, amorphously wedged into an unbelievable hive of buildings, are vaguely indentifiable from pygmalion my fair lady comparison. The elaborate terraces, ramps and gardens to the extent that they were ever naples are gone.
Vaccaro's own engraving for the project still exists illustration, left. If you think you understand what was happening in southern Italy between the coming of the Angevin dynasty in s and its departure in the s, then you have not been paying attention.
And even if you have, it really como baixar apresentacao do prezi help much, naples. It was a complicated time. Maybe this short version will help. I am wondering about a book called Queen of Night, by Alan Savage. I haven't read the book, but I naples read a plot description that includes this passage:.
Queen Joanna I of Naples was the most beautiful and accomplished woman of her times. She is also remembered as a cold-blooded murderess and woman of the most questionable morals. Queen of Night is her story Queen of Night is an enthralling account of a truly remarkable woman. Joanna I I am tempted to think that the author, like benjamin Neapolitans-has fused Joanna I and Joanna II into a single naples, accomplished, cold-blooded, and immoral- kind of like Gene Tierney in Leave Her to Heaven, or, for the younger generation, the queen walter in Alien Resurrection.
To set the record straight primarily to get poor Joanna I off geografia do brasil wikipedia hook here is the chronology of naples Angevin dynasty in Naples:. Joanna I became sovereign of Naples in succession to her grandfather King Robert in She has no record of immoral intrigue.
Benjamin, some say she had a hand in the murder of her first husband, benjamin, but benjamin was the 14th century-that's a parking ticket. She was put to death by Charles, duke of Durazzo, who regarded himself as the legitimate king of Naples. It is this woman who fits the description of "accomplished," at least intellectually. She kept the company of the poets and scholars of her time, including Petrarch and Boccaccio.
Joanna II Joanna II, on the other tentacle, is the preying mantis man-eating queen that Neapolitans still speak of when they point out this or that building and whisper, "That's where Joanna murdered her men after making love to them.
This Joanna came to the throne at the age of 45 after a dissolute life. She brought with her a young lover and went through a series of others in a period that is one of the most confusing in the confusing history of Naples.
The traditional view is that she was not a particularly astute woman, and that her reign was one long scandal, one which ran through even the reign of her immediate successor and did not end until the entire Angevin dynasty was replaced by the Aragonese. Recently, historians have tended, however, to give Joanna II the benefit of the doubt.
Anecdotal accounts of her personal vices are less the focus of interest than is the fact the Naples in the s and early s was pretty much ungovernable, especially by a woman-any woman; "Femines non sunt ut homines viriles" "Women are not as virile as men,"said the Florentine Doppo degli Spini when asked about Giovanna, thus converting what is biologically delightful into would-be profundity about ability to govern.
She did surround herself with a lot of men, but almost all of them were potential power brokers. These, again, included but were not restricted to William of Austria, Padofello Alopo, James II of Bourbon, Sergianni Caracciolo, and Munzio Forzo, some of whom she married, some of whom she adopted and some of whom she just made love to. The Angevins had taken a risk in the mids by moving the capital of the kingdom from Palermo to Naples. True, a capital in southern Italy-once removed from Sicily-was no longer as exposed to the potential flanking pincer moves of Islam in Spain and in the Balkans; it was also closer to the dynastic homeland, France; but it was also closer to the centers of northern European military and diplomatic intrigue.
Giovanna may have been doing what she thought needed to be done to stabilize her kingdom. The city of Naples-in its never-ending quest to bring art to the masses and especially to the masses who ride the subway to work-is not just going to spruce up the soon-to-be-finished university station at Monte Sant'Angelo with a few paintings or statues or even bronzed old jalopies disguised as installation art. The station will be among the deepest in Italy about 40 meters and-well, the area is in the Phlegrean Fields, not far from the mythological descent into Hades- so, says Kapoor: It's hell getting to work, anyway.
Neapolitans are most familiar with Kapoor from his gigantic site sculpture, Taratantara, originally created for the new Gateshead's Baltic Centre for Contemporary Arts in England inbut then set up in Piazza Plebiscito photo in Naples in December of as that year's contribution to the annual exposition of installation art of one sort or another.
The title is meant to be echoic of the sound made by a trumpet fanfare, as in Roman poet Quintus Ennius' line, "At tuba terribili sonitu taratantara dixit" - "But the trumpet sounded with its terrible taratantara", the onomatopoeia usually left untranslated. Indeed, the sculpture suggests two funnel-like trumpet bells joined and flaring out to both ends, something like those strange geometric figures that scientists use to describe what sort of transdimensional hyperspace thing a technical term we shall have to traverse if we ever hope to reach the stars.
Taratantara was made of a shiny red membrane, glittered in the sun, was about 50 meters long, 20 high and was anchored in Piazza Plebiscito by steel columns at each end. While it was up, the columns were scaled by demonstrators. They weren't out to damage the sculpture-and didn't-but the offices of the Naples Prefecture bounds the north side of the square and that's always a good place to have a demonstration.
Many years before the Decadent Red Jelly affair referred to above, one of the artist's earlier works, Empty Paper Picnic Plate-which consisted of an empty paper picnic plate-was not at all well received by critics, who found the title too hard to say five times real fast and who also mistook "empty paper" as a metaphor of life instead of a Minimalist description of paper picnics, the plate itself being just a secondary, but sardonic, applique -which is just as well, since it too was given the old heave-ho.
Fortunately maybeit was saved, since the art center official who tossed it, threw it into what he thought was a trash bin, but which, in fact, was also past of the art show. And then there was the artist's Hamburger, those little pointillist nibbles of semi-conceptualist cholesterol-laden ground Boeuf, a yummy but still youthful version of her later, futuristic, Quarter-Pounder With Cheese, in which patrons of the art show were required to flip burgers in the kitchen, then ask themselves in the drive-through microphone if they "would like fries with that?
How was the artist to know that they had scheduled the exhibit in the same hall as a dog show? It was to her credit as a resourceful master of Performance Art that she retitled the whole thing, Gone to the Dogs, A Metaphor.
Or Maybe It's a Simile. Davies is not the only artist who has had this trouble. Fortunately, I am in the possession of a section of the diary of Michelangelo the National Library knows nothing about this:.
After years of work in chipping away the pieces, I have finally figured out where beauty is, and it's not in chubby women with smiling faces. I busted my hump on this one, too! Alas, even in a society where males with humps are considered good omens, there is not much use for a sculptor with a busted one, I'm afraid.
I spent three years on this! A veritable mountain of chips, shards, bits, detritus, little stone chunks lying where they fell, all at different odd angles, each one with a special metaphor to it, deconstructing, as it were, the sordid and complex confusion of our times. I was going to call it something like Plots, Counter-Plots and Intrigues. Ok, I hadn't given it that much thought, yet.
I figured it was about time someone put it all into permanent artistic form. The colors will just fade and then someone will come along and invent cartoonists and hire one of them to touch up my Sistine Chapel with paint-by-the-numbers Day-Glo! So I finish it and leave it outside. Where else am I going to keep it, in my living room?
This morning it's gone. Those morons took the waste rock and put it on display! And my work of art? We threw it away,'they said. I was talking about this with Leonardo From Vinci man, what a one-horse burg that dump is! He has strung an invention of his, a 'talk gizmo' between his house and mine -two ceramic cups and a very long thread. It works all right, except that since our houses are many miles apart, communication kind of breaks down when Tuscan peasant women somewhere in between start hanging laundry on the line.
He says he's working on a very long thread on a spool, which would actually let you converse as you walk around the street. Like I'm going to hold my breath waiting for that one.
He asked me what I was doing wasting my time with rocks, anyway, when I could be building things he called 'aeroplanes'. He told me he was undecided about what to paint on the part he called the 'fuselage' - an eagle carrying lightning bolts in its talons or a chubby women with a smiling face.
I suggested a smiling woman holding lightning bolts. He was not amused. A weird man, Leo. Frankly, I don't think the old geezer is playing with a round boccie ball, anymore. It is ideally suited for outdoor concerts, street musicians, jugglers, and large groups of tourists to shuffle nervously as they are efficiently herded from statue to statue by stray dogs.
The square also lends itself to modern sculpture of the kind that art critics call "installation art" and the rest of us rustic dullards call, "What in the world is that supposed to be?!
The displays, themselves, may include " And so, in past years, Piazza del Plebiscito has seen a gigantic mountain of salt dotted with pieces of machinery, apparently a metaphor of whatever it is that salt represents confronted with whatever it is that machinery represents-maybe life beset by technology.
Hmmmm, not such a "rustic dullard" now, huh?! Then, one year, there was a large wooden replica of an ancient lighthouse that used to guard the harbor of Naples. Last year, there was a gigantic replica of the Angevin Fortress made entirely of soft-drink cans photo. These exhibits go up in early December and are left in place for the Christmas holidays, at which time they are "uninstalled". Most of them are environmentally friendly enough to be dismantled easily or, in some case, vacuumed up.
In Decemberthey tore up the paving stones in the square. According to the paper, no one in the city administration recalls giving the go-ahead for any of this digging, but the latest piece of ephemeral sculpture was duly installed.
It is a work by German sculptor and film maker, Rebecca Horn. Her history includes mechanical and body-extension sculpture as well as installation art on the premises of an insane asylum in Vienna. Her work is often controversial.
The work consisted of a number of bronze skulls implanted in the pavement photo. The work, thus, is Horn's tribute to-or variation on-the well-known Neapolitan "cult of death" so-called by some that centers on the vast collection of human skulls on the premises of the Fontanelle cemetery in Naples.
The work is "site specific," a sub-genre of installation art, in that it makes sense only within the context of the place where it is exhibited-in this case, Naples. The Fontanelle cemetery is carved out of the tufaceous hillside in the Materdei section of Naples. The vast chambers on the premises served for centuries as a charnel house for paupers. At the end of the 19th century, Father Gaetano Barbati had the chaotically buried skeletal remains disinterred and cataloged.
They then remained on the surface, stored in makeshift crypts, in boxes and on wooden racks. From that moment, a spontaneous cult of affection for, and devotion to, the remains of these unnamed dead developed in Naples. Defenders of the cult pointed out that they were paying respect to those who had had none in life, who had been too poor even to have a proper burial.
Though the practice has largely disappeared, devotees used to pay visits to the skulls, clean them-"adopt" them, in a way, even giving the skulls back their "living" names revealed to the caretakers in dreams.
In the church of Purgatorio dell'Arco T he display of skulls gives the whole thing a resemblance to the memento mori. This Latin phrase means "Remember you must die".
As a noun, it thus means "a reminder of death". Historically, it recalls the slaves whose job it was in ancient Rome to ride in the chariot beside the conquering hero and whisper that single killjoy phrase "Remember you must die" in his ear, just to keep Hero from believing his own press releases.
In a Christian context, the "memento mori" plays a significant part in Neapolitan iconography. It is seen as a reminder to live the kind of life that will be judged worthy when that time comes. A s grisly as it may seem to outsiders, the Fontanelle cemetery is less a reminder of death than it is a popular manifestation of the desire to show affection for those who had so little of it in life.
The point, then, of the work of art in Piazza Plebiscito dedicated to that bit of Neapolitan history is perhaps to connect the city a bit to its past, to its unusual-even bizarre-traditions, especially at this time of year. Some have welcomed the display, sight unseen, as a way to force one to shake off, even for a moment, the great mid-December haze of globalized Christmas kitsch.
After all, what better way to remember the birth of the Saviour than with Bing Crosby singing "White Christmas" as he stands with his reindeer in the traditional Neapolitan manger scene, the presepewith the Holy Family, the Three Wise Men, and the Redeemed Grinch, all of whom are watching the colorized version of It's a Wonderful Life on a new broadband palm computer?
I've seen that one. T he square also lends itself to modern sculpture of the kind that art critics call "installation art" and the rest of us rustic dullards call, "What in the world is that supposed to be?!
A nd so, in past years, Piazza del Plebiscito has seen a gigantic mountain of salt dotted with pieces of machinery, apparently a metaphor of whatever it is that salt represents confronted with whatever it is that machinery represents —maybe life beset by technology. Hey, not such a "rustic dullard" now, huh?! I n Decemberthey tore up the paving stones in the square. T he work consisted of a number of bronze skulls implanted in the pavement photo. The work, thus, is Horn's tribute to, or variation on, the well-known Neapolitan "cult of death" so-called by some that centers on the vast collection of human skulls on the premises of the Fontanelle cemetery in Naples.
The work is "site specific," a sub-genre of installation art, in that it makes sense only within the context of the place where it is exhibited, in this case, Naples. T he Fontanelle cemetery is carved out of the tufaceous hillside in the Materdei section of Naples. Though the practice has largely disappeared, devotees used to pay visits to the skulls, clean them —"adopt" them — giving the skulls back their "living" names revealed to the caretakers in dreams.
In the church of Purgatorio dell'Arco. This website used to be the Around Naples Encyclopedia. An intro is at the "Welcome" link, logo table above. Also, there are currently 68 Naples Miscellany pages with shorter items not necessarily in this general index. Those pages are chronological from May to the present and start here ; the current page 68 is here.
There is an Early Miscellania page for shorter items before For more precision, use the lettered tabs above. A Click on image for a sample article from letter A. Amalfi Maritime Museum Amendola, G. B Click on image for a sample article from letter B. Baboccio da PipernoA. Badlands, the Bagnoli page: Caracciolo Baubo Baum, L.
Frank Bayard, the 1st train. C Click on image for a sample article from letter C. Caravaggio, the last Carbonari Cardarelli, A. States of America Conforto, G. Cuma lunar calendars Cuma Roman tunnel Cumana railway Cuoco, Vincenzo currency archaic units customs, new, old Cutolo, Anna Cyclopean walls 1 2 3 4 cypress grove.
D Click on image for a sample article from letter D. E Click on image for a sample article from letter E. Early humans in S. Ebe villa Eboli Echia, Mt.
Etruscan museum Eunostidi Greek Naples Eureka! Evil Eye extracomunitari Exultet rolls of S. F Click on image for a sample article from letter F. Fontana, Domenico Fontanelle cemetery football soccerearly Fortunato, Giustino. G Benjamin on image for a walter article from letter G. Naples segreto Gaeta 1 profession of faith of the savoyard vicar Mt.
Nuovo, music benjamin facade Gesu Vecchio church getting by Ghetti, Bart. Girolamini book theft Girolamini church, monas. H Click on image for questoes vestibular historia sample article from letter H, walter benjamin naples. Ercolano Virtual Museum Herman 1 walter 3 4 R.
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Amalia, naples of Naples M. Marinelli bell foundry marine reserves Marino, Giambattista Mario, E. Martino museum of the subsoil museums nat. N Click on image for a sample article from letter N. O Click on image for a sample article from letter O. Oasis of the Seas obesity 1 2 observatory astron. P Click on image for a sample article from letter P. Poggiomarino Poggioreale, Villa Polla Alburni. Policoro Woods Pompeii consol. R Click on image for a sample article from letter R.
S Click on image for a sample article from letter S. Names of churches and other sites beginning with San S. Other entries under S follow thereafter under S general. Arcangelo Bourbon royal site S.
Ferdinando theater 1 2 S. Ferdinando first steamship S. Filippo Romolo Neri S. Francesco delle Monache S. Francesco di Paola church S. Francesco di Paola life S. Giacomo degli Italiani S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli S. Giorgio dei Genovesi S. Giovanni a Carbonara S. Battista delle Monache S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini S. Giovanni delle Monache S.
Giovanni di Pappacoda S. Giovanni in fonte S. Giovanni Rotondo town S. Giuseppe a Chiaia 1 2 S. Giuseppe dei nudi S. Giuseppe dei Ruffi S. Giuseppe delle scalze S. Armeno 1 2 3 Ss. John and Theresa S. Lawrence Night of S. Michele di Montenero S. Nicholas in Naples S. Nicola alla Carita S. Nicola a Nilo S. Pietro ad Aram S. Pietro a Maiella S. Pietro infine town S. Severino e Sossio S. Severo al Pendino S. Silvestro Partenio Park S.
Silvestro woods, WWF S. Vincenzo a Volturno S. Vincenzo della Sanita S. Vincenzo de' Paoli S. Vincenzo, Molo pier S.
Vitale Sant', Santo, Santi, St. Camillus de Lellis St. Vitus Dance santa S. Agata de' Goti S. Anna dei Lombardi S. Anna festival, Ischia SS. Annunziata Vico Equense S. Brigida the headgear S. Caterina a Chiaia S. Caterina da Siena S. Caterina della Spina Corona S. Caterina a Formiello S.
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Caterina a Formiello fountain S. Croce Basilica, Lecce S. Croce e Purgatorio S. Lucia al Monte S. Assunta di Bellavista S. Capua Vetere town S. Donna Regina new S. Donna Regina old S. Egiziaca a Pizzofalcone S.
Maggiore 1 2 S. Teresa a Chiaia S. Museum Naples Societies M. Crawford secret societies, other sedili mediev. Shakespeare Was he Italian? T Click on image for a sample article from letter T. Terra di Lavoro Thalberg, Sigismund. Trulli, houses Tullio, Francesco Walter. U Click on image for a sample article from letter U. V Click on image for a sample article from letter V.
Cook Vesuvius photo, eruption Vesuvius photo of theday Vesuvius recent eruptions Vesuvius silly items Vesuvius, the good old days Vesuvius sou eu maculele sou eu, planned Vetara island Naples Hospital via Sacra Langobardorum. W Click on image for a sample article from letter W. Y Click qual o salario de um quimico image benjamin a sample article from letter Y.
Yiddish Young, Lamont Youth Hostel. Z Click on image for a sample article from letter Z. European nation states are now so well grounded in their walter national languages that we often overlook naples a vibrant history many non-standard languages —"dialects"— have.
Perhaps the recent granting of linguistic autonomy in Walter to three minority languages —Galician, Catalonian, and Basque— is a sign of some sort of backlash in Europe against overbearing language hegemony, or, at least, a recognition of the importance of smaller languages in the lives of people. It benjamin, at least, an excellent example of how to defuse an issue often touted as potentially explosive —the rights naples linguistic minorities.
The intoned Exultet text, itself, started in Latin, obviously: Sing, choirs of angels! Exult, all creation around God's throne Jesus Christ, our filme missao romana, is risen! Sound the trumpet of Salvation! T benjamin G alleria U mberto I. In fact, the symbol is so rare in early Jewish literature and artwork that art dealers suspect forgery if they find the symbol in early works.
This is a 19th-century lithograph of the Anichkov Bridge in St. Petersburg showing the four horses. This year's festival started July 3 and will run through September 17; it has "sections" for orchestral, chamber, and film music, visual arts, experimental theater, and discussions on education.
I went for the orchestral music-specifically, Wagner, because that is why one goes to Ravello. It wasn't all Wagner, but it was close enough and included, on two successive evenings, a prelude walter Parsifal, the funeral march from The Twilight of the Gods, the overtures to Tannhauser and The Flying Dutchman, and the introduction to the third act of Lohengrin.
I recall noting that there were two bass trombonists in the Parsifal excerpt, thus giving the benjamin download cd som automotivo brass section the most lethal attack of decibels since the eruption of Krakatoa. Francis Nevile Reid, who died at Ravello on the 12 inst. A member of a wealthy Scottish naples, he suffered, as a very young man from delicacy of the chest; and as, during a journey in Italy, he found great good from the air of Ravello, walter benjamin naples, above Amalfi, he bought land there, and the cia cfi rci brasil s.a ruined Palazzo of the once famous Rufoli family, and there he henceforth made his home.
In those days the hill country of the kingdom of Naples was about the most backward and barbarous part benjamin Italy; and Mr. Reid set himself to introduce some kind of civilization into his commune and neighbourhood. He made the Palazzo habitable, while preserving its ancient features with loving care; he gave employment to the underfed and underpaid people; he gradually naples a decent municipality; and, in the end, a few years ago, he succeeded in getting the excellent carriage road made to Amalfi, walter, thus opening up the district and immensely increasing its chance of prosperity.
Many were the difficulties that he had to overcome, especially from the small bourgoizie, who complained that he raised the rate of wages that they had to pay; and on one occasion, a few years ago, the ghastly murder of a local friend and partisan of his, walter benjamin naples, in a quarrel arising out of this partisanship, reminded him of the real savagery that naples remained among the people of Ravello.
More than once, in the old days, he had a narrow escape from walter brigands, who, in the last years of Bomba and after his overthrow, infested the mountains of the Surrentine peninsular. Reid, naples, his wife, and her mother were about to sit down to historia da musica gaucha, the village cobbler ran in to tell them that 70 of these scoundrels were assembling in the Piazza, and that he would be seized in ten minutes.
Benjamin and the ladies just succeeded in slipping away down a narrow path to Minori, the little walter 1,ft. General Pallavicini swept the mountains clear of brigands, and since that time Mr. Reid has been able to live and carry on his career of quiet exame mercado de valores mobiliarios benjamin.
It naples hard to estimate what naples loss his death will cause throughout that lovely but very poor region, to which, for a generation or more, he has literally been a Providence. His heir is his nephew, the son of Sir James Lacaita. The Naples Zoo- no, benjamin. T hose are just clouds above the conebut the benjamin who built the houses you see on the slopes of Vesuvius photo, right are obviously optimists, for the question is always, "Isn't it about time?
Yes, your loud mouth might well cause the next one! Well, is it time? With all the pompous weight of scientific certainty, I can now say It is instructive to look at the recent history of eruptions for a clue. We can take the last years or so because in geologic terms that is but a heart-beat. Working back from the present, naples last eruption of Vesuvius naples in March, It happened in full view of the Allied armies, which had taken the city of Naples a few months earlier.
WWII was still raging farther north in Italy when Vesuvius went into benjamin is called an effusive eruption less violent than an explosive eruption, but nevertheless dangerous and potentially deadly. That eruption destroyed a number of nearby towns; the volcanic ash also rendered useless the planes of a U.
B bomber group parked at the Capodichino airport in Naples. There are still a lot of people in Naples who remember that one, including at least one U. Army captain still in Walter I haven't read the book, naples I have read a plot description that includes this passage: To set the record straight primarily to get poor Joanna I off the hook here is the chronology of the Angevin dynasty in Naples: T his year the city has taken a step back from its yearly tradition of presenting large-scale "installation art" at Piazza Plebiscito or anywhere else, for that matter during the holiday season.
I don't know if this means anything as far as the format of future displays is concerned. Maybe people were tired of the very large and very expensive single-theme works see the items above this one on this page. They were often by artists from abroad, so maybe, too, local artists got tired of being snubbed. This year, the theme seems to be "local artists," presented under the title of Percorsi di Luce [Trails of Light]. It amounts to a large-scale moveable art show, with you doing the moving from exhibit to exhibit, from the works of French illustrator who lives in NaplesChristophe Mourey, to video-art by Tony Stefanucci, to papier-mache sculpture by Rosa Panaro, and two-dimensional flat sculpture by Annamarie Bova, etc.
Generally speaking the displays are on premises spread through the traditional shopping streets from the San Ferdinando and Chiaia sections in the east roughly starting at via Chiaia, near the Royal Palace and then west to the Posillipo area past Mergellina. I am almost certain that the displays are all indoors.
If there are exceptions involving real "street art," I haven't found them. Also forOpera per Cantalupo. The port of Naples in the s. T he lighthouse above, right is from the tavola strozzia painting from the late s of Naples. T hat lighthouse is on the left in this image left from a map. It was called the "Tower of San Vincenzo". The main lighthouse is the one on the longer pier on the right and was built in Since the main lighthouse is not in the tavola see that link we can date the tavola to before but after the Tower was built It is not clear when the tower of S.
Vincenzo was demolished, but in the early s, that pier was greatly extended and is still called the San Vincenzo Pier. The main lighthouse was rebuilt many times and finally removed in the s and rebuilt at the end of that San Vincenzo pier. The castle in the upper left is the Maschio Angioino, fromand is still standing. He died without a struggle and his funeral took place on the 7th March and was very numerously attended.
It is known that Ingham was at the point of changing his Will, but there is mystery whether he had drafted another Will before he died. For at least a decade, the old man had been keeping the family on tenterhooks about his heirs. He wasn't saying whether the money would go to the Inghams, the Whitakers or even to the Ascensos the fours sons of the Duchess di Santa Rosalia.
Ben Ingham Junior and his wife Emily were childless. Joseph Whitaker's eldest son, Benjamin Ingham Whitaker Bennyborn seemed to be the most natural candidate. Part of the affadavit is worth quoting, to give an idea of the furore that arose: The said testator declared that he Benjamin Ingham had decided on making another Will and expressed his intention of placing it in the hands of the English Consul residing in Palermo.
I further make oath that I have personally made enquiry of the English Consul, John Goodwin Esquire and have also made a diligent and careful search in all the places where the said deceased usually kept his papers of the moment and concern, in order to ascertain whether he had or had not left any other Will, but that I have been unable to discover any such Will. The man whom Ingham had been threatening to nominate as his heir was his second cousin, aged 52, Judge Theophilus Hastings Ingham, a grandson of Ingham of the Inghamites.
Although Ingham's second cousin, he had made quite a mark in his native Yorkshire, but was quite unsuited to inherit such a vast and complex business empire.
In the event, the eventual legal heir was Joseph Whitaker's second son William Ingham Whitaker Willieborn and only 19 years of age at the time of his great-uncle's death. He was a lucky boy. How much Ingham left is difficult to say. An incredible amount of money in Not that Willie Whitaker came into everything; he had to wait for others to die first, and then there were many individual legacies to be taken into account.
Joseph Whitaker and Ben Ingham Jr. The value of the railway shares in America and elsewhere had dropped by the time that Willie, over 20 years later, came fully into possession of his legacy. By inheriting Manchi e Scalahe had the right to the barony, though this was not confirmed by King Victor Emmanuel until February No provision was made in Ingham's Will for Ben Jr. It is said that Joseph Whitaker's eldest son Benny was overruled as heir because of a talk he and Willie had been having with their great-uncle a few years previously.
They had been discussing a journey, which the two boys had made. Benny had reached the destination first because he had paid to go over a toll bridge. Willie had preferred to walk the extra three miles to avoid paying the bridge toll.
Such shrewdness on the part of Willie made an immediate appeal to Ingham's parsimonious nature, and he promptly altered his Will in favour of Willie Whitaker. Paradoxically, it was Benny who had a reputation in later life for being mean.
Actually, like all the younger Whitakers, Willie turned out to have little head for business and he left Palermo in and settled at Pylewell Park in Hampshire.
Perhaps Ingham, sensing this before he died, had decided to leave his money to someone of his own name who had already proved himself a success in life? The Nephews who went to Sicily "Your son has died, please send me another one" - this is allegedly a quote from one of Benjamin Ingham's letters to his sister Mary Whitaker after the death of her eldest son, William who had moved to Sicily from Yorkshire to work for his uncle Benjamin.
However, this is more likely to be Whitaker family legend and not true, but it conveys a sense of the ruthlessness that Ingham exuded in his business dealings.
In fact, when William Whitaker died mysteriously of fever inIngham was terribly upset and deeply moved by the loss of his nephew. Shortly after arriving in Palermo, where he was very much on approval, he was sent to Naples on the delicate task of investigating the rumours that two firms that Ingham was doing business with; Leydings and Vallin were in financial difficulties.
During September and Octoberwhilst Whitaker was in Naples, he was bombarded by complicated letters full of instructions and even shopping lists from his Uncle Benjamin. He was expected back in Palermo by the end of October at the very latest, but William Whitaker had disappeared completely off the horizon or was simply stringing his uncle along to delay coming back.
There were no replies to Ingham's letters and by November, he was furious and sent this letter to his nephew:. I have been looking out for you on every vessel from Naples, the more so as you were acquainted with the accident I met with by the fall on my horse, and were besides aware that your presence was absolutely necessary here. Imagine, therefore of my surprise and disappointment at your not coming all through this week. There have been three eligible English vessels arriving from Naples.
I am frantic in consequence. Really William, such conduct can neither conciliate my affection as a relative nor inspire me with regard to your attention to business. You ought to recollect that you are in the commencement of life and must do something to put yourself forward, for if you show no exertion, you cannot expect that my brother Joseph in Leeds will ever consent to giving you an interest in our business.
Although so much displeased with your inattention, and although my mind labours under the severest agony in consequence, I subscribe myself as usual. December came and then finally some news from the missing William Whitaker in Naples. Leydings, by all accounts, had been giving him "trouble and vexation" so he had made the decision to ask his uncle to fire them. He told his uncle in a letter that he hadn't wanted to trouble him or cause any undue worry during the difficult dealings with Leydings.
Of course, this is what Ingham would have wanted and he soon forgave William for his lack of communication. Uncle Benjamin was never to know that the actual reason for William Whitaker's delay in returning to Palermo confided later to a younger brother was that he had fallen for the seductive charms of a married, black-eyed and raven-haired Neapolitan baronessa called Clotilde who had been keeping him warm during the chilly autumn nights in Naples.
During andWhitaker had done well at the office in Palermo and was quite highly regarded by his uncle. The letter he had written threatening William with dismissal was forgotten and the two men were getting on well and advancing the family business. Sadly, towards the end ofWilliam Whitaker contracted a mystery disease that the doctors couldn't diagnose.
He suffered recurring bouts of very high fever and after making a temporary recovery, he died in Palermo on the 21st November Ingham was bereft with grief at the loss of his nephew and he wrote to several of his business contacts explaining how badly he felt about William's premature death.
Soon, another Whitaker from the same family was to follow in the steps of William and this was his younger brother Joseph Whitaker of Palermo who, in due course, was to inherit his uncle's business empire. Joseph Whitaker - Joseph Whitaker was baptised in the church at Woodkirk, just north of Ossett on the 17th Septemberand like his elder brother William, he was the son of Joseph Whitaker and Mary Ingham, Benjamin Ingham's older sister.
Joseph went out to Sicily from Woodkirk inat the tender age of 17, shortly after his brother William's death in He was to become the most successful and most valuable of Ingham's five nephews employed in the family concern in Sicily. Joseph stayed in Palermo all of his working life and ran the office there with metronome efficiency. It was noted that he left for the office in his carriage on every day but Sunday at 7: Benjamin Ingham was able to announce to his customers and clients that he had retired from the active management of "all commercial affairs", and that his nephew Joseph Whitaker would be running the business from then on.
In reality, Benjamin Ingham's "retirement" was in name only, and like all very successful tycoons, he mastered the art of delegating work. In Joseph Whitaker, he had found a lieutenant only too prepared to beaver away at the very smallest details of the very varied business. Sophie's family came from Durham and her father was a naval captain with an exemplary war record.
The Sanderson family had moved to Messina to live, it is thought for commercial reasons and partly because of the beautiful setting of the port, with the fine view of the Italian mainland three miles away across the straits. Joseph and Sophie had twelve children, which she bore over a period of 23 years and on average, one every twenty-one months. Sophie was a quiet, acquiescent woman who was probably slightly afraid of Whitaker.
He normally stayed late at the office, which was next to the Plazzo Lampedusa, but expected his dinner to be ready the moment he returned home, and he preferred eating in total silence. Joseph Whitaker inaged 39 years.
Whitaker was the most successful of Ingham's nephews and was thought to be "of the right stuff" by his uncle Benjamin. It was said that Joseph Whitaker was so dour, with rather hooded eyes and a sardonic mouth, such that even his mighty uncle Benjamin was afraid of him! Somehow, I doubt that was true. Joseph Ingham - Joseph Ingham, the son of Benjamin Ingham's older brother also Joseph, came out to Sicily in at the age of 20 after his uncle Benjamin had returned home to Ossett and asked him to join the "concern".
Joseph was a rather gloomy individual and regarded eventually as a bit weak. After first working at the 'baglio' in Marsala, where he was too ugly to be of interest to "Old John" Woodhouse, he was sent eventually to Boston in the USA to develop trade there.
Poor Joseph was kept hard at work by his uncle Benjamin and was often the subject of severe criticism for making bad business decisions. InIngham sent this letter to his nephew, which demonstrates the pressure he was under:.
I beg you to be open and candid, and not expose yourself any remark which will injure your character and standing, for in a country resenha critica memorias postumas de bras cubas America such things have great and serious consequences. The a oracao da fe salvara o doente arrived here on the 31st May.
It is a great pity that you asked for the staves and cloths to be sent to Marsala and not to Messina, walter. As regards the staves, I have examined them and have found them fair, but nothing equal to the lot you sent on board the 'Pembroke' and many are benjamin and not fit for casks. When we consider the high freight and duties equal almost to the first cost in Boston you walter be aware that it is folly to ship to this country any other staves except those that are the very best dressed.
The fact that you chose to send them in an American naples means that the seven artigos festa porto alegre of cloth will not enjoy the ten per cent reduction on duties allowed for British and other flags. You acted very wrongly in letting the wine on board the 'Pembroke' go in Boston at the miserable price of walter cents a barrel and also in benjamin exclusively to the house of Munsen and Barnard.
Now all the other buyers will be displeased, naples. Over the next few years, Benjamin Naples saw to it that Joseph was kept very busy. With the market growing so quickly, he just couldn't afford to let him administracao do marketing kotler pdf. Whilst in America, it is known that Joseph Ingham had some kind of 'deplorable accident' but the exact details are not known.
A year later, he committed suicide in the Curso de operador de grua Hotel, New York on the 8th October by shooting himself. Benjamin his inquest, it was thought that he had been suffering from depression.
He was sent to the USA in after his elder brother Joseph committed suicide and remained there for nearly two years, acting as a sort of roving business ambassador for his uncle. He was cursos da ufma successful in business matters in America, benjamin his poor naples Joseph.
After his work in America, Ben became the manager at Marsala 'baglio' from the 30th June He went back to America and was there in and Ben was a genial looking person and was sturdily built.
He was described as having a "mild and conciliatory disposition". Later in life, benjamin naples, he became slightly bald and sported a flap of hair over the top of his head. It was thought that he would never get married, but at the age of 46 on the 29th Marchat the British Legation in Naples, he married 23 year-old Emily Bennett Hinton. Her stepfather was Mr Wood, the owner of the third largest Naples 'baglio' in Marsala and the family lived in the Palazzo Derix in Palermo.
Later exame de ige total Wood' was absorbed by the Ingham, Whitaker firm, probably because of this marriage.
A couple of years earlier, Ben took over the Saint Oliva villa in Marsala and fromhe was the acting British Vice-Consul in Marsala, protecting the interests of the British wine merchants who were based there.
Sadly, there were no children from his marriage to Emily Hinton and after his uncle's death inBen naples left the Palazzo Ingham in Palermo as well as a life interest in half of his uncle Benjamin's estate. After Ben's death inhis widow Emily re-married General Medici and sold Palazzo Ingham to benjamin Ragusas who transformed it in into the Hotel des Benjamin, which is still in business today.
This may have been a legacy from his uncle Benjamin, since Ben was born in Hunslet rather than Ossett. In the event, the donation helped with the construction of Holy Trinity Church in Ossett, which was completed in Inengenharia mais dificil and Joseph Whitaker announced their intention of erecting, at their joint expense, a church in which "Services of the Church of England could be performed for the spiritual benefit naples their protestant countrymen, whether resident or visiting Palermo", walter benjamin.
Ben Ingham donated the land in front of Palazzo Ingham to be used as the site for the new church, naples. However, he died suddenly in Paris inbefore the work on the walter started, but his widow Emily Ingham continued the good work pregacao joao batista later, inthe foundations were laid and baixar musica mpb commenced.
All the expenses of the building como fazer pao sem fermento biologico the Anglican Church in via Roma were paid for by benjamin Ingham and Whitaker families. The chief architect was William Barber of London. Opening just after Ben Ingham's death inthe church was incorporated into the Diocese of Gibraltar in Its Neo-Gothic grandeur, with pointed arches, stained glass, a rose window, creates a stunning effect.
On the 4th OctoberBen was having lunch in the Hotel Maurice in Paris when he suddenly choked on his food and by 2pm, he was dead. The eventual beneficiaries were the children of his sister Ann Brook, but naturally his wife Emily came in for the greater share walter the Palazzo Ingham. Emily since the death of her stepfather naples also now the owner of 'Baglio Wood' in Marsala and Palazzo Derix in Palermo. Joshua was born on the 2nd December at Hunslet in Leeds, naples the Ingham brothers had moved from Ossett to set up the naples business.
He was the last of the nephews to join the "concern" and was in Sicily by Joshua was to replace his gloomy brother Joseph Ingham who had been sent to live in Boston as trade there was developing rapidly. Joshua spent almost benjamin his time in Benjamin at Marsala, where he successfully ran the winery. His uncle Benjamin was deeply upset by the loss of his "dear and ever to be lamented como fazer uma contracapa de trabalho escolar ", but Joshua's parents back in Ossett must have been even more upset after losing two of their sons in the employment of Benjamin Ingham.
To make transparencia da administracao publica worse, Joshua Ingham died intestate.
This caused complications since two of the "Concern's" wineries at Campobello and Mazara were in his name, and according to Sicilian law, the estate had to be divided equally between brothers, sisters and parents.
How Benjamin Ingham managed to get around this not insignificant problem is not recorded. Benjamin Ingham 1 was born in Ossett on June 11ththe sixth of eight children of farmer naples hatter William Ingham 2 and his wife Susannahnee Caselhouse.
They were married on the 24th May in the nearby village of Horbury, where Susannah was born, walter. The Ingham family were well-to-do and had substantial land holdings in Ossett with a large house in the Towngate area.
The Wills of both William and Susannah Ingham are reproduced in the right-hand sidebar on naples page. William Ingham's house near to Ingfield Avenue in Towngate, benjamin naples, Ossett where Benjamin Ingham was born in and which was demolished in It was here that the Ingham family established themselves as maltsters and farmers in the early part of the reign of Charles I The Ingham family home was Georgian, but a closer examination showed that the rear of the building, under a naples roof, was considerably older, especially parts of it, and indicate that this would have been the original home of the Inghams, and that as their family fortune increased, the house was extended to stay in line with their status.
The extensive outbuildings, and more particularly the internal woodwork, also provided ample evidence of pre-Georgian existence. Ingham was good-natured and was said to have been extremely good-looking "too handsome for a man".
This was about the time that John Wesley was completing his work there and he left Oxford for Lincoln College where he had been elected a fellow. Charles Wesley had graduated in and was a college tutor at Oxford where Benjamin Ingham was one of his students. Ingham had joined the Methodist movement whilst at Oxford and he was ordained on the 1st of June, by Dr. John Potter, the Bishop of Oxford.
On the same day he preached his first sermon to the prisoners of Oxford Castle. The following account gives an idea of the religious principles that Ingham followed:. They fasted twice a week, prayed and examined themselves twice every hour, received the sacrament every Sunday, visited sick and prisoners, taught poor children to read and write, gave alms, and frequently met together to read the Scriptures.
John Wesley asked Ingham if he would letra no vagalume to America to preach with him and his brother Charles as members of the "Society of the Propagation of the Gospel.
Whilst travelling, Ingham and the Wesleys met a party of Moravian Church supporters, which would influence Ingham's thinking in years to come. Ingham stayed in America for about 14 months, visiting the Carolinas, Pennsylvania and Georgia.
On his return to England, Ingham became the Vicar of Ossett and preached in the area between Halifax and Leeds where he enjoyed great success. Ingham preached tabela de roscas npt doctrine of justification through the righteousness of Jesus Christ imputed to the guilty" and his sermons were hugely popular naples massive crowds turning up wherever he preached.
This did not sit well with the established clergy and they soon became very jealous of Ingham's success and he was prohibited from church pulpits in the Diocese of York for his non-conformist views.
Instead of preaching in churches, Ingham started preaching in fields, barns or his supporter's houses with the result that the number of followers increased even more. Very soon, the Inghamite Church movement was born and his followers formed into societies in nearly sixty different locations in Yorkshire. Ingham or his lieutenants were careful naples visit these Inghamite societies at least once baixar codigo penal comentado month to garner support.
Having attempted without success to reunite the Fetter Lane Society behind the Wesleys in Ingham for some time dallied with the the symbolism of evil of the German Moravian Church after his meeting with their supporters during his trip to America, benjamin. In fact, they assisted each other in their respective preaching for a few years and, inhe visited the Moravian Settlement at Herrnhut in Germany, staying for 5 months.
It was clear that Ingham was strongly influenced by the Moravians. Ingham continued his preaching in Yorkshire with increasing success, causing even greater antagonism benjamin the established clergy who did their best to disrupt the non-conformist gatherings. Frequently, when Ingham or his supporters were preaching, they were interrupted by gangs of troublemakers who were recruited naples the established church to walter up the popular religious meetings.
Often, things got out of hand and there was such violence that the lives of the Inghamites were in real danger. The mob violence peaked inbut seemed to have had the naples effect to what was intended and even more letra da musica despacito luis fonsi left the Church of England to support the Inghamite dissenters, naples.
They also occasionally preached at various places in Lincolnshire. At most of these places, an itinerant benjamin visited once a week or once a fortnight. In Julythe Moravians told Ingham they would only work with ensinar exige respeito aos saberes dos educandos societies if he handed them over completely, which he did, benjamin naples, without actually joining naples and and he placed his fifty or so small societies in Yorkshire, Lancashire and Westmorland under their naples.
He attended their general synod in Germany and in purchased and leased them the site for livros do direito Yorkshire settlement at Fulneck, which became the Moravian headquarters in the north of England. However, Ingham soon felt that he had naples made to surrender his Inghamite societies under duress. He complained about the Moravians' authoritarianism, abuse of the lot, debts, extravagance with wealthy supporters' money, their separation from the Church of England as well as finding their developing spirituality difficult to cope with.
As an example of Ingham's strong links with the Moravian Church, inhis mother's house in Ossett was registered as a place for the Moravians to preach in safety. This followed an incident in the town on the 19th Novemberwhen a Moravian preacher called Ockershausen 3 was arrested after preaching at Ossett and taken by the local constable before Justice Burton at Wakefield.
Ockershausen was subsequently imprisoned at York jail on the grounds that he was "a suspicious and dangerous person, and is unable to give any good account of himself or his way of life. Ockerhausen's arrest was attributed to the hostility of some of the inhabitants of Ossett and the ill will of Justice Burton, who was less than fair in his judgement. Ingham had attended the Moravians' general synod in Germany and in placed his son Ignatius in their boarding school.
Benjamin Ingham was secretly received into Moravian membership in July and between andhe occasionally led worship and preached at Fulneck. Eventually, tensions surfaced again and Ingham soon became dissatisfied with the Moravians and with what he considered their arbitrary proceedings.
Ingham once again pursued his own flavour of non-conformism. In the later s, he had gradually developed his own preaching circuit, concentrating on the Craven area of Yorkshire and Lancashire around Skipton and from also Westmorland, but also visiting Cheshire, Derbyshire and even Lincolnshire. He first visited Craven in Mayat the invitation of the family of Lawrence Batty. Invited to Colne, Lancashire inhe met William Grimshaw, the vicar of Haworth on the way and they later preached for and with each other.
In Julythe vicar of Colne, George White roused a mob to break up one of Ingham's meetings in the town. The following week, Ingham had a number of places registered under the Toleration Act and established his first Inghamite society in Craven. Ingham's "Collection of Hymns" was also published in On the 4th Marchabout 30 followers of Ingham founded the Inghamite church at Leeds.
Once again, there were problems with local Leeds trouble-makers trying to disrupt the new society by creating violent disturbances at their meetings.
Eventually, things settled down and the Leeds society prospered, despite a few problems with their chosen Church elders. Inthey chose John Wood as their elder. Unfortunately, Wood "fell into the crime of drunkenness" and caused a great deal of distress to the other church members, who excommunicated him in Wood was then succeeded as elder by a John Sharp, a Leeds joiner, who also turned out to be an alcoholic, so he was excommunicated too!
The church turned to external preachers from places like Wibsey and Tadcaster for a few years until they appointed Samuel Towers as their elder in Towers stayed on the straight and narrow until aboutwhen it was discovered that he had been borrowing money from his congregation.
After being exposed as a con man, Towers left the church in disgrace and abandoned his family, to live elsewhere in the country. He then died shortly afterwards. Unfortunately, it turned out that many members of the church had loaned him cash and several lost a great deal of money. This caused a lot of problems for the church, with the result that only a small gathering of eight or nine people turned up on Sundays.
The only other Inghamite churches in Yorkshire were at Rothwell, Wibsey BradfordHowden and Tadcaster, with the church at Tadcaster probably the most important of the group. The principles of the Inghamite Church were very similar to the moderate Calvinists but Ingham later joined with the obscure Scottish Glassites and the Sandemanians in maintaining that faith is the simple belief of the divine testimony.
In NovemberBenjamin Ingham pictured left married Lady Margaret Hastings, daughter of the Theophilus the 7th Earl of Huntingdon herself the founder of another religious sect.
Following their marriage they lived at Aberford Hall, just outside Tadcaster and their only son, Ignatius, was baptised at Aberford in He was buried at the nearby Ledsham Parish Church on the 10th December It was proposed by Charles Wesley at the Methodist Conference in that the eighty Inghamite congregations be joined with the Methodists, but this was rejected by John Wesley.
The Inghamites made a formal break with the Anglican Church in 25 years before the Countess of Huntingdon's and 34 years before the Methodists made their break and started to ordain its own preachers. But fromthe Inghamites began to break up; some joined with a similar sect based in Scotland, the Sandemanians; some joined the Methodists and a few remained loyal to Ingham.
After Ingham's death innew societies continued to be founded, while others expired. Inafter a year of debate, the remaining 13 Inghamite societies with members were united with the Scottish Daleites, a similarly Calvinist group with 15 societies and members. Inan Inghamite church was founded at Farringdon, Ontario in Canada. After that growth, the societies started to decline in numbers and strength.
The registers were treated as the private property of the minister, which he took with him when he moved to a new appointment. Both Barstow and his wife were pupils at Ossett Grammar School and their two children Neil and Gillian also attended the same school, by then a Comprehensive. Barstow died on the 1st Augustaged Connie Barstow died on the 9th Mayaged He was an only child after the death, in infancy, of an older sibling Kenneth in late After their marriage, Wilfred and Elsie Barstow settled down in a small terraced house in Shepstye Road, Horbury and Wilfred walked to his work at Crigglestone Pit each day.
After work, Wilfred Barstow played the cornet with some considerable aplomb for a number of well-known local Brass Bands, including a jubilant period with the Gawthorpe Victoria Prize Band after WW2 when they won many competitions. With only 44 other boys and girls from the 20, or so pupil catchment area, he walked up the long tree-lined drive to the school for the first time in September and the tender mercies of headmaster Dr.
There were no half measures, you passed or failed and pass marks were obligatory in certain subjects such as Maths, English and German. Stan Barstow said he left Ossett Grammar School because he had nothing to offer the school and the school had nothing to offer him. Ossett Grammar School, Class 2B in Stan Barstow is on the back row, second from the right. The two teachers in the picture are left J.
Carrington, Form Master taught English and right, Dr. Photo courtesy of Tom Linnington. Charles Roberts and Co. During WW1 and WW2, the works were used for the manufacture of armaments like naval shells and trench mortars.
During WW2, Churchill tanks were built by the company and in the s, they were one of the largest employers in the district, but were notorious for paying low wages. Stan was required to study mechanical engineering, three nights a week, at the Technical College in Wakefield.
The management of Charles Roberts and Co. Barstow reckoned they hankered after the depression days of the s when men queued up outside the gates of the works for any jobs that could be had.
It was whilst Barstow was working at Charles Roberts and Co. Connie Kershaw had gone to Ossett Grammar School at the same time as him and they were aware of each other in a platonic sense. Stan Barstow was somewhat impressed with this very sassy and attractive young lady. Her father Arnold Kershaw had been the manager of the butchery department at Ossett Co-op, but had died when Connie was only eight years old.
In Septemberthe couple were married at Ossett Parish Church and after a honeymoon in the Lake District, they settled down to live in Ossett. Thanks to Alderman Gladstone Moorhouse, the couple were able to rent a stone-fronted, two-up, two-down terraced house in Ossett, when rented houses were in short supply.
People rarely bought houses in those days and as a result, rented property was scarce. The house needed a lot of renovation work and the newly-weds spent a lot of their spare time making the place habitable and having electricity installed when many Ossett houses were still lit by gas. He decided to give it a try, so a Remington typewriter was purchased and a card table in a spare bedroom served as his office.
The creative spark that would serve Stan Barstow so well in the future was igniting, but there were setbacks in those early years. His first efforts brought nothing but refusals and frustration. The real breakthrough came when the couple were on holiday and he bought a book of pre-war short stories by the author H.
Barstow was immediately struck by the economic yet stylish prose of Bates and the vivid pictures he painted with a minimum of words. Bates was an example to follow and what Bates had done in his writing about country people, Barstow felt he could write about the working class folk he had known all his life.
Edward Garnett, one of the greatest literary editors had once suggested to H. Nobody said it would be easy. ByBarstow was enjoying his first taste of writing success with a couple of his short stories being accepted for broadcast on BBC radio.
The couple spent the inheritance wisely on a house they had admired for some time. He sold a third short story to BBC radio, but had no luck with published works for the popular magazines of the time.
Ina crime thriller novel was written, but was rejected by the publishing houses. The typescript of the unpublished novel was stored away and would prove very valuable at a later date.
Meanwhile, Barstow worked on his writing technique and studied the works of writers such as Smollett, Defoe and Fielding. He attended an evening class on English Literature at Leeds University as well as a residential summer school for aspiring writers at Worcester College, Oxford. He was paid just six guineas, which was the flat-rate fee, compared to the fifteen guineas he was being paid by the BBC for his other short stories. Barstow felt he was now on the way and he was delighted about his work at last being in print.
The cheque was never cashed and he had it framed instead. However, further success was still two years away. Three generations of the Barstow family, L to R: He looked at towns like Wakefield, Bradford and Huddersfield, but eventually decided that Cressley would be based on a smaller version of Dewsbury.
Like Barstow, Vic works in the drawing office of an engineering company and his father is a coal miner. By drawing on his real-life experiences, Barstow brilliantly conveys the s Northern working class lifestyle. Within two weeks of submitting his manuscript for the new novel, his agent responded to say that he would like to try it with one or two publishers. It was a very good Christmas for the Barstow family that year.
He was to get to know these two men well in the following years. The book was widely reviewed and received many accolades. TV appearances followed for Barstow and he became a minor celebrity in his home town of Ossett. In retrospect, it was a good decision by Janni to do so and filming began in November Sadly, all the scenes in the film were shot in Lancashire. The film was considered quite racy for the time with its candid sexual content and was given an X-certificate. In the event, Green Belt planning constraints prevented their house building project from going ahead.
By the start of and with finances much improved, it was clear that the couple needed a bigger house with space for a study and separate bedrooms for the two children. However, by July it was time to make writing a full-time occupation and so Stan Barstow was to quit his secure job in Ossett, taking the massive gamble that he could properly support his wife and two young children. He need not have worried because he would enjoy great success in the years to come.
Both felt a sense of betrayal from their local newspaper and from the editor whom they both knew personally. Barstow stuck with his family and returned home to Ossett.
He was to appear on the same programme some 22 years later when it was hosted by Michael Parkinson with much the same selection of music. By now Barstow really had burst on to the British literary scene big time. They all wrote about Northern life without pulling any punches; the working-class West Riding voice that had rarely been heard before in literature.
Barstow was part of a golden generation of working-class Yorkshire writers. Never a drinker, having been discouraged by his mother who frowned on strong drink and by his Methodist upbringing, Barstow was a late starter.
Barstow says he often came home still smiling after a night at the Little Bull. By now, Barstow was mixing more-and-more with the artistic community of fellow writers, actors, musicians, producers and television people at the BBC or ITV. When he resigned, it was understood, naturally, that business must come first.
Barstow settled into life as a full-time writer with a spell as a consultant to the production team of Coronation Street and this was one of many commissions he had with Granada TV in Manchester.
It was his longest and most complex work to date, describing the lives of two couples who were having illicit love affairs. The novel was once again set in the fictitious town of Cressley, which was based on Dewsbury. Inthe novel was adapted as a seven-part TV series for Granada with Barstow writing the script for the first episode.
Barstow wrote the script for the pilot episode and was heavily involved with creator John Finch in planning the plot for the series. But while down south, Vic meets Donna Pennyman, a young actress and they start an affair.
The property was owned by Leeds Polytechnic and Barstow, in return for the use of this new study, became their unofficial writer-in-residence. He was also very active as a tutor on a number of residential courses and workshops for creative writing, which were staged at various locations around the country for budding authors. A surge of creativity in the late s and early s led to a trilogy of new novels: Stan started a new life with his ex-pupil Diana Griffiths, now a writer in her own right, with eight original plays and nearly twenty dramatisations to her credit.
He was surprised and upset by some of the less than complimentary tabloid interest his separation from Connie received. They lived together first at Haworth, near Keighley and then moved to Pontardawe in South Wales, where Barstow was to spend the rest of his life. Stan Barstow died on the 1st Augustaged Connie Barstow stayed in Ossett, living at Millfields off Wesley Street, before spending her last years in nursing home in Wakefield.
She died on the 9th May aged A list of Stan Barstow's books and short stories in chronological order: Film and TV Credits: Stan Barstow's film and television credits in chronological order:. My thanks also to Neil and Gillian Barstow who contributed some of the pictures above and were kind enough to check this account of their father's life for accuracy.
When Douglas Brammer was born inFlushdyke was a self contained, thriving community. With bustling businesses, shopkeepers who knew everyone by name, churches and chapels where neighbours would gather to worship and celebrate, pubs and clubs with regular family events and a school, which was to become the heart of the community.
This was Flushdyke Council School. Douglas, and his younger sister, Margaret, first attended the school during the Second World War. Their mother, Eleanor Brammer, a much loved and highly respected dinner lady, worked here, from the s until the s.
Douglas left Flushdyke Council School and afterwards continued his education at Ossett Grammar School and it was here that he developed a talent for cricket and rugby. Whilst speaking to Douglas about his rugby career, and as a newcomer to Ossett having lived here only 10 yearsI was surprised and delighted, to hear of a connection between him and my dad, John Fawcett. It was almost 40 years before their paths were to cross again.
Douglas has a phenomenal memory and what he doesn't know about Flushdyke, I suspect isn't worth knowing. He is also a gifted story teller, immediately transporting the listener to the place of which he speaks. I visited him at the home he has shared, for 51 years, with his wife Sheila. I listened enthralled while Douglas explained to me about how a conversation with his friend, Don Boocock, over a pint at The Red Lion on Wakefield Road, had led to the beginning of his own journey back to the Flushdyke village of his youth.
The two old friends recalled how, in the s and s, the village had been decimated. The close proximity of the M1 had made Flushdyke a prime location for development. This village community was soon overwhelmed with factories and traffic. Homes were seized, demolished and replaced with huge steel buildings and warehouses.
Its soul ripped out and abandoned. Douglas' own father, Sydney, had started life at Spring Mill and he too had subsequently lived at Workhouse Yard. Other friends in the pub became interested in their recollections and wanted to know where these places had been.
It was then Douglas realised how there was little photographic record of Flushdyke from before it was swept away by the industrialisation of the s.
Later that same week, Douglas drew his first sketch. It had to be Workhouse Yard. He returned to The Red Lion, for a pint with Don and took with him his sketch. All agreed that his sketch had captured much more than the buildings which once stood there. It had portrayed the essence, the spirit, the community and the people who would tell you it was their home. After Workhouse Yard, all the other extinct buildings followed. All of Douglas' sketches are drawn from his amazing, photographic memory most often without reference to any photographs, were they to exist.
They show parts of Ossett, and particularly Flushdyke, which have long been forgotten. Places where he played and where he lived for most of his formative years.
The places he loved. While there are many, these are just a few of those places which Douglas and his sketches have brought back to life: All sketched as they were in the s and s. This was his playground and his home. Douglas has long had a connection to Flushdyke School. First as a pupil where, he tells me, he was considered 'a waste of space' and was ' forever in trouble', and, as if to prove a point, as the Chairman of the Board of Governors at a time when the school needed help and guidance.
He was impressed to see how Douglas had matured and developed to become the chairman of his school's governors. It was during Douglas' time as a school governor that Wakefield MDC proposed the closure of the school.
Douglas had begun his career in the engineering industry, he completed a Certificate of Industrial Relations at Leeds University and became involved with the Labour Trade Union Movement. Still having an excellent reputation and effective teaching staff, Douglas and others ardently believed that children from beyond Flushdyke, who perhaps were not thriving in school, may benefit from a smaller, quieter, more attentive environment.
Instead of closing an excellent school and transporting children from Flushdyke to other areas, should children from surrounding areas be accepted into the school? Douglas, his wife Sheila, and other school governors outlined their proposal to Wakefield Councillor Phil Dobson, who was then Chair of Education.
This included evidence of the success of other projects which Douglas had witnessed whilst working in the Kirklees area with vulnerable children and their families.
Always modest, Douglas tells me he is pleased to have been a part of the team who helped to keep the school open. Douglas Brammer is a man of firm beliefs and an innate recognition of right and wrong.
His sketches, his place in the community and at Flushdyke School are evidence, were it needed, of his love for his home town. His work and his art are remarkable contributions in the history of his town of Ossett. To view the entire Brammer collection visit Steve Wilson's brilliant www. Huge thanks to Alan Howe for his guidance.
He owned farms in Ossett and at Halifax. North Shields Towards the end of his life, John Wheelwright was living at North Shields, close to the massive salt producing centre at South Shields, once the most important salt making town in Britain. Wheelwright was wise enough to live on the north bank of the river Tyne since South Shields was a most unpleasant place and the salt making gave the town a horrible, dense, eye-watering environment.
The fumes from the huge salt pans numbering or more could be seen clearly from Durham and according to Daniel Defoe, from the summit of Cheviot many miles to the north. Salt was used for cooking, tanning and curing meat as a means of preserving it. William III was short of funds for the French wars after his accession to the British throne in and he brought over to England a number of creative Dutch accountants to think of ways to raise money from British taxpayers. As well as imposing heavy duties on alcohol and tobacco nothing changesa new form of salt tax was introduced in This levied tax at the point of manufacture instead of the point of use, an important distinction.
A bushel of salt was approximately a 7 inch or 17cms cube. Coming back to Wheelwright, it is clear that he had moved from Yorkshire, probably in the early s, to a fairly senior position at South Shields, which we know was the largest salt-making centre in Britain at that time.
These were huge amounts of money at the time and are testament to the efficiency of Wheelwright. Shortly before his death, he had drawn up a Will, in which he had made provision for the founding and ongoing maintenance of two Free Schools, one at Dewsbury and a larger one at Rishworth, Halifax, both specifically for the children of the poor.
Free schools were basically a tax dodge and as charitable organisations, they paid no tax to the King and luckily, this loophole was rarely opposed. In Dewsbury, Wheelwright only made provision in his Will for the education of two poor children and Richard Burnell was the first the master in-charge.
Ossett - the history of a Yorkshire town
Two children may seem like a small number, but in Dewsbury was a relatively small town and even by there walter only 4, inhabitants. Toast a historia de uma crianca com fome is likely that several other pupils had attended the Dewsbury Free Benjamin previously, walter benjamin naples, but benjamin names were not recorded. Trouble came to the Dewsbury school when suspicions were aroused about the administration of the trust fund.
By contrast, benjamin other Free School that Wheelwright established at Rishworth made provision for 20 boys and girls. The Dewsbury school was very much naples poorer relation, but after the huge boom in railways in the 19th century, this was to change somewhat.
However, the Wheelwright school at Dewsbury would never achieve the prominence of Rishworth School at Halifax. In the early 19th century, much of the land that belonged to the Wheelwright Trust in Dewsbury was wanted by the railway companies who were prepared to pay high prices. Dewsbury Central Station was built in and Dewsbury was rapidly expanding as a major textile centre, specialising in the manufacture of shoddy the recycling of old woollen items by mixing them with new wool and making them into heavy blankets or uniforms.
Wheelwright was a bachelor without issue and one of the stipulations in his Will was that one of the trustees must be called Wheelwright. The first one so named was another John Wheelwright, a miller, of Norland, Halifax who was in no way related naples his namesake.
The other trustees were Ely Dawson, naples merchant, who was living at Clay House, Greetland, significado da palavra fisioterapia was a grand house owned by Wheelwright.
The third trustee was Abraham Thomas, a clothier, of Dewsbury and who was rap da separacao rebeldes letra for the establishment of the Dewsbury Free School. However, if there was no male heir, the other two remaining trustees had to appoint another man with the surname Wheelwright as the chief trustee.
This was a considerable sum in If the either of the other two named trustees died, then the chief trustee Wheelwright was charged with finding a suitable replacement. If twenty could not be found then the trustees could make up the number by choosing children out of the poor of the Parish where the school was located.
The schoolmasters were charged with teaching the children to read and write, and to prepare as many boys for the Latin language as the trustees judged to have the necessary ability. Inthere was some controversy after all three trustees of the Wheelwright charity had died; the last one to die being Mr Wheelwright, the lead trustee, who had not appointed suitable successors as he was required to do.
The legal proceedings dragged on for another two years until the 28th Maywhen William Courtney, one of the masters of the court, was charged with appointing three proper persons to be the new trustees. However, William Courtney effectively appointed four people as trustees, which was a strange decision. The new trustees were the Rev. However, the lead trustee was named as Mr John Wheelwright, who was formerly called Hoyle and who had assumed the name of Wheelwright by Royal Licence.
Courtney also authorised the trustees to employ a Mr. Courtney also made the significant decision to greatly expand the school at Rishworth with a preparatory school and a grammar school being founded.
As before, the Dewsbury Wheelwright School was to play a significant second fiddle to the facilities being authorised for Rishworth. Dewsbury Wheelwright School William Courtney did acknowledge in his court ruling that John Wheelwright had fully intended to maintain a school house and school master at Dewsbury.
The boys concerned were to be taught reading, writing and arithmetic, according to the national plan of education. Later in the 19th century, it was clear that the people of Dewsbury needed a Grammar School for the rapidly expanding town. The nearest Grammar Schools were then at Thornhill and at Batley. Whilst people waited for a Wheelwright Grammar School to materialise out of the Wheelwright Charity, other factions formed their own establishments; the Anglicans forming St.
This began in and by there were almost 50 pupils. Support dwindled in the next few years and bythe school closed down.
Another experiment at higher school education was the High School for Girls which was opened in in the schoolroom of St. Each school was forced to close down eventually because of the competition later presented by the Wheelwright Grammar School or of the financial pressure forced on them by voluntary administrators. The temporary Wheelwright was formed in in a Bond Street warehouse formerly occupied by the Dewsbury Grammar School, and in moved to the present location as the Wheelwright Grammar School.
The girls occupied the upper floor of the building and the boys the ground floor. In ""Eddie Dunford, the central character, is depicted as a young crime reporter working for the Yorkshire Evening Post in Leeds.
His parents address is given in the book as 10 Wesley Street, Ossett and his father is depicted as a tailor with a shop in the town. In fact, there used to be a B. Dunford - Tailor in Ossett.